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Sabbatier Effect - If film or paper has been exposed, developed, washed but not fixed, and is given a second uniform exposure and developed again, a reversal of the original image will be produced. Discovered originally in 1850. Man Ray accidentally rediscovered the process in 1929, and used it successfully in his work.
scoring - Creasing by mechanical means to facilitate folding while guarding against cracking of paper and board. Scoring is essential when heavyweight papers are to be folded across the grain.
section frame - The aluminum frame that is offered in its sectional pieces. It is available in gold and silver as well as many colors. They are easily assembled using screwdrivers.
selenium tone - Toner used on blueprints and transparencies that affects print color. Depending on dilution and time, the toner will have the effect of richer blacks and eventually tone the print to a reddish warm brown to a rich brown purple. Selenium toner is somewhat of an archiving process as well, protecting the silver of a print or slide with a selenium coating.
sepia toned prints - Sepia brown toner for photographic prints. A two-bath toner, the image is first bleached and then redeveloped in the toner, which affects the entire image tone of the photograph--rendering the image in a continuous brown (sepia) scale, as opposed to neutral black and white.
sheet film - Photographic film generally used in large format work, typical sizes including 4x5, 5x7, and 8xlO. Roll Mm is the general name for small format (e.g., 35mm) and medium format (e.g., 120 fihn).
shelf-life - The period of time before deterioration renders material unusable.
shives - Undercooked, thus incompletely saturated, wood particles that are removed from the pulp before manufacture of paper begins. Sometimes shives will appear in finished paper.
short grain paper - Paper made with the machine direction in the shortest sheet dirnension.
signature - (1) A folded, printed sheet ready for sewing. (2) A letter or number placed at the bottom of the first page of each signature of folded sections to serve as a guide for the binder.
silk screen printing - A stencil technique of printing.
silver halide - A silver salt formed by mixing silver metal with one of the halides, i.e., iodide, chloride, or bromide. This silver halide compound is then suspended in a gelatin to form a light sensitive emulsion.
silver halide film/paper - Common halides used in photography are silver bromide, silver chloride, and silver iodide. Silver bromide is most popular. The silver halide is the chief component of the light-sensitive emulsion, it is suspended in gelatin to assure an even and random dispersion, gelatin mixture is then coated on support bases of plastic film, glass or paper.
single wall - Describing one thickness of corrugation, or fluting columns, in boxboard or corrugated board.
sizings - Chemicals added to paper that make it less absorbent, so that inks applied will not bleed. Acidic sizings (rosin and alum), can be harmful and can cause paper to deteriorate, but some are not acidic and are expected to be more chemically stable.
slip-case - A box designed to protect a book or album, covering it so that only its spine is exposed.
slurry - The suspension of fibers and water from which paper is made.
solander case (museum case) - (1) A box with a hinged top, shaped like a thick book, that can house prints, pamphlets and documents.
solarization - Sometimes used to refer to Sabattier Effect, but solarization in the contemporary sense refers to over-exposure to the extent that, upon development, the densities diminish and appear to reverse.
spine (backbone, back, backstrip) - The part of a book or binder that is visible when it stands closed on the shelf. Also the hinged area of a clamshell-type box.
spores - Reproductive body produced by plants and some invertebrates and capable of development into a new individual.
spray mount - A kind of rubberized adhesive available in aerosol cans. It is used to mount photographs and small artwork. There are many variations of this product so that the label must be read carefully. Usually not considered archival.
stain - In photographic conservation, this refers to changes especially in a color print that occur in the dark. A typical example is the overall yellowing of early Kodachrome prints caused by deterioration of the magenta coupler.
stereo views - Popular photo medium of around the turn-of-the-century that utilized a card with two very similar images mounted next to each other on a single card. Using a viewing apparatus, the viewer looked through the dual eyepiece at the cards fixed a short distance away on the apparatus, and an illusion of dimension in the image was created. The cards were collected and were a predecessor to picture magazines.
Stereo-cards - Mounted images side by side on a card used with a specially designed viewer. (See stereo views.)
stereograph - A pair of photographic prints mounted adjacent to each other on a 3-1/2 by 7 inch card, which gives a three dimensional, or stereographic, image when used with the proper equipment.
sulfate - In papermaking, (1) an acid process of cooking pulp for paper; (2) pulp cooked by this process.
support - The surface onto which an emulsion is coated.