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C.R.I. (CRI rating): - Abbreviation for Color Rendering Index--which represents a numerical rating (95 being the standard) for overall brightness and evenness of a viewing light field, as in that of a light table.

calcium carbonate - An alkaline chemical used as a buffer in papers and boards.

calendering - In papermaking, the process of passing the web of paper between polished metal rolls to increase gloss and smoothness.

caliper - The thickness of a sheet measured under specified conditions. It is usually expressed in thousandths of an inch. Thousandths of an inch are often called "points."

cambric-quality - A cotton fabric that resembles the fine thin white linen fabric of cambric.

card stock - A heavyweight, smooth surface paper stock, used for a variety of applications including linings, dividers, album pages and file folders.

cardboard mounts - Standardized cardboard slide mounts for film positive transparencies used for projection in slide projectors. Cardboard mounts are usually half as thick as plastic mounts (with glass), so group storage systems will hold twice as many cardboard mounts as plastic.

Cartes de Visite - Name describing small photographic calling cards (similar to a business card) of the turn of the century. Usually the card had a portrait of the "caller" on one side and relevant information about the "caller" on the back.

catalog (verb): - A complete systematic organizing of items (as in works of art) for the purpose of accessible storage. Usually items are labeled with a unique number. All pertinent information is recorded and referenced to that number.

cellulose fiber: - The primary component of paper. It is obtained by separating the non-fibrous elements from wood, woody plants, cotton and other sources by bleaching in the pulping process.

cellulose triacetate - An inert plastic film used for a film base and in making storage enclosures for photographic materials. One of the few safe plastics used for photographs.

channel - In picture frame moldings, the space, accessible from the back, provided for insertion of glass, mats, and backing material.

chipboard - A paperboard generally made from reclaimed paper stock. Used for many purposes including partitions and the filler (center ply or plies) of solid fibreboard. This low grade of paperboard generally contains a high degree of lignin and acid content.

chromogenic dyes - Dyes or color produced in a color print by a colorless dye precursor embedded in the photographic emulsion combined with a dye coupler in the developer solution. The interaction of the two after exposure to light produces a color print. Prints are produced from color negatives.

cibachrome - Name of non-chromogenic color print process in which preformed dyes (yellow, magenta, and cyan) are placed in the paper's emulsion. Once exposed, processing bleaches away the unwanted dye color, leaving the desired color. (e.g., The red of a stop sign is formed by bleaching away most of the cyan dye, leaving the yellow and magenta dyes to form red.) Prints are produced from color transparencies.

clamshell-design (portfolio): - A hinge design that opens the top and bottom of a case in complete opposite direction. In the case of portfolios, the hinge will lay down flat once opened and allow easy access to materials contained within either side of the portfolio.

color balanced - Term describing the reproduction of the color scale by photographic or print processes matching as closely as possible the color scale of nature.

color separation - The process of dividing full-color originals into the primary process printing colors: magenta, yellow, and cyan.

color temperature - Rating scale describing a light source's value on the spectrum. Important to photographers in that individual films are designed to respond to particular color temperatures to reproduce a neutral or "balanced" color value, based on the appearance of color in natural or daylight conditions.

conservation board - Purified wood pulp, acid- and lignin-free board designed to meet archival standards at an economical price. Conservation board is designed for matting and storage of works of art without, by its composition, adversely affecting the original work of art.

conservation: - The treatment of library or archive materials, works of art, or museum objects to stabilize them chemically or strengthen them physically, sustaining their survival as long as possible in their original form. See also preservation.

conservator - One responsible for care, restoration, and repair of museum articles.

contact print - A print made by exposing photographic paper to a light source while it is in direct contact against the negative. Since there is no magnification, the print is the same size as the negative.

continuouston - An image containing gradiant values of gray as well as the black and white extremes.

copy negative - A film negative made by photographing (copying) a print. It is used to make more prints.

corrugated - Fluted or shaped into parallel rows to provide strength without excessive weight, as in corrugated board. In matting, corrugated is sometimes used as backing board in a frame.

cotton board - Matboard whose pulp originates from cotton which is chemically and physically broken down to fibers and molded into paper stock or board. "Cotton" as a term is usually recognized as a board that is archival and composed of only cotton, as opposed to wood pulp which is, in general, perceived as non-archival when untreated. Also see Rag Board, Museum Board.

cotton fibers - Selected new cotton cuttings acquired from the textile industries. They are free of synthetic fibers and are a source of cotton fibers used in the manufacture of cotton content papers. Basic cotton and cotton linters are also used in the manufacture of pulp.

crop - To trim off or mask out unwanted parts of an image.

cyanotype - Alternative non-silver photo process distinctive for its brilliant blue print color (referred to as a blue-print) using chemistry coated onto paper stock and exposed by contact printing with ultraviolet light. (Non-enlarging process--contact printing only.)